The United States of America is actually in a very particular situation in which everybody needs to understand on true facts and key figures the performance of the U.S.A since 2017. In order to be objective and based on accurate information, it is important for the rest of the world to understand the situation of the United States on the three pillars of sustainable development with key indicators (that each country of the world uses to demonstrate its success or not).
The question posed by this article is the following: “Is the United States of America in a good or bad economic, social, environmental and security situation after the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate?”.
The IMEDD is a French independent research institute specialized in sustainable development, which means that all the analysis conducted below are neutral and objective on the facts and key figures following the goal of providing an accurate information for people to understand the U.S sustainable development’s situation between 2017 and 2020, while taking into account a comparison to the previous years.
Perimeter used for this analysis based on the U.S key figures
To analyse a country on its economic, social, environmental and security performances, each country of the world needs to provide data and key figures to the international organizations in order to :
- follow the evolution of the country through the years,
- compare the performance of one country to another country,
- guide the national public policies of a country to a better performance (economic, social, environmental and security).
Therefore, the IMEDD defined a perimeter of time for its analysis of the U.S key figures, starting in 2009 and ending in 2019, considering that :
- the year 2008 can’t be added as it was an anormal year due to the financial crisis and the recession that followed.
- the year 2020 can’t be added in the analysis as it is a totally anormal year in terms of economic, social and environmental performances due to the covid19’s crisis which struck the world, and of course, the U.S.
For the year 2020, only the data of the coronavirus crisis will be presented. The data will compare the performance of the U.S to tackle the health crisis vs some European countries, in order to see if the American management of the crisis was better, equal or worse than the European countries.
For some of the key indicators presented below, the 3 first quarters of the year 2020 will be presented, with a projection for the 4th quarter, based on the average of the 3 first 2020 quarters.
In terms of sustainable development indicators, some U.S key figures will be analyzed in the period starting in 2009 (2008 is excluded due to the recession) and ending in 2019 (2020 is excluded due to the health crisis) to understand the evolution and see if the U.S has improved or not their economic, social, environmental and security performances through the period, and especially in the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate.
The key figures which enter in the perimeter of the analysis are:
- Economy: the U.S annual growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) between 2009 and 2019
- Economy: the U.S imports of goods (2009-2019)
- Economy: the U.S exports of goods (2009-2019)
- Economy: the U.S trade balance (2009-2019)
- Economy: the U.S corruption index (2009-2018)
- Social: the U.S expenses in education (2008-2020)
- Social: the U.S average wage (2009-2019)
- Social: the U.S unemployment rate (2009-2019)
- Social: the U.S public expenses in health (2009-2019)
- Social: the U.S rate of violent crimes (2008-2019)
- Social: the U.S rate of immigrants (2009-2019)
- Social: the U.S rate of emigrants (2009-2019)
- Social: the U.S poverty risk rate (2009-2018)
- Social: the U.S key figures of covid19 vs some European countries + Russia (2020)
- Security: the U.S public expenses in defense (2011-2019)
- State: the U.S total public expenses (2009-2018)
- State: the U.S public debt (2009-2019) vs France and the United Kingdom
- State: the contribution to the U.S public debt by Presidential mandate (the biggest increase)
- State: the U.S maximum tax rate on job workers (2009-2019)
- Environment: the U.S CO2 emissions from energy consumption (2009-2019)
- Energy: the U.S production of oil (2009-2019)
- Energy: the U.S production and consumption of energy GWh (Giga Watt per Hour) (2009-2019)
- Environment: Key points about the environment in the United States
Each key figure will be analyzed in adequacy of a Presidential Mandate considering that the policies can have an impact on the evolution of the data as well as the crisis. Therefore, the year 2008 which refers to the subprimes crisis and the year 2020 which refers to the covid19’s crisis are taken out of the analysis, so the evolution can be analysed in a fair and normal perspective.
The goal of this global analysis will finally be to provide full transparency on the U.S sustainable development’s evolution on the three pillars, economic, social and environment, in order to respond to the initial question: “Is the United States of America in a good or bad economic, social, environmental and security situation after the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate?”
Point 1: the U.S annual growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) between 2009 and 2019
Before starting the analysis, it is recalled that the year 2008 (subprime’s crisis) and the year 2020 (covid19’s crisis) are taken out of the account.
The data are presented in Euros (as not all tables were available in dollars but euros). The currency studied is not a discriminant key point as the trends remain the same.
Here is below the table of the U.S data for the GDP between 2009 and 2019.
In the table below, apart from the growth of 2009 which was negative due to the subprimes crisis in 2008, each year, the U.S has a positive growth with two significant years:
- 2018 with a growth of 3%
- 2015 with a growth of 3,1%
There was a major increase in value of the GDP between 2018 and 2019 which shows the good economic situation of the United States before the 2020 health crisis. The most important evolution to underline is that between 2009 and 2019, the U.S GDP increased by 84%.
Source of the data for the U.S annual growth of the Gross Domestic Product (2009-2019):
Here is below the table of the U.S data for the GDP for the 3 quarters of 2020
If we add to the table above, the first 3 quarters of 2020, the GDP of the U.S for 2020 is already at 13 844 127 M.€.
This number excludes the 4th quarter 2020 which can be projected in the same proportion that the 3 first quarters, around 4 500 000M.€, which would lead around 18 344 127 M.€ of GDP for the year 2020, which would be an intermediate number between the year 2018 and the year 2019 (see table above), which would show how the American economy was solid to resist the covid19’s crisis in 2020.
Here is below the table of the U.S data for the GDP per inhabitant between 2009 and 2019.
The table below clearly shows that several years have been significant in terms of GDP’s growth between 2009 and 2019 in the United States. The year 2008 is excluded due to the subprimes crisis and the year 2020 is excluded due to the covid19’s crisis.
- The year 2019 with a growth of GDP per inhabitant of 9,7%.
- The year 2015 with a growth of GDP per inhabitant of 23,7%.
- The year 2012 with a growth of GDP per inhabitant of 12,1%.
- The year 2010 with 8,3% of GDP growth per inhabitant which corresponds indeed to the U.S recovery of the economy after the subprimes’s crisis in 2008.
Here is below the table of the U.S data for the GDP for the 3 quarters of 2020
If we add to the data listed above the 3 first quarters of 2020 despite the covid19’s crisis, the table of the U.S data for the GDP for the 3 quarters of 2020 shows that the 3 first quarters of 2020 have already produced a GDP per inhabitant of 42 291 euros (this number excludes the last quarter of 2020) which means, considering the year 2020 that around 13 000 more euros per inhabitant could potentially be added to this GDP /capita for the 4th quarter, which would lead to a 2020 GDP of 55 291 euros per inhabitant, a number that would be very good considering the world crisis and the pandemic, and it would show that the American economy has been well preserved despite the health crisis.
Projected US GDP for 2020 and evolution depending on the Presidential mandates
The first table below presents the projection of the U.S GDP for the year 2020 considering the results already obtained during the 3 quarters of 2020 and projecting the 4th quarter on the same basis as the other 3 quarters of 2020. The table clearly shows that the American economy resisted well to the covid19’s crisis and stayed very close to the 2019 GDP, which underlines that the impact of the covid19’s crisis was very well managed in the economy.
Projection 2020 by the IMEDD using the U.S official GDP data: https://fr.countryeconomy.com/gouvernement/pib/etats-unis
The table below shows the evolution of GDP regarding the different Presidential mandates since 2009 including the results of the 3 first quarters of 2020 and the projection of the 4th quarter on the same basis as the other 3 quarters of 2020. In this case, it clearly shows a big increase of the U.S GDP between the 2017-2020 Presidential mandate and the 2013-2016 Presidential mandate, which shows by the facts, a very booming economy in the U.S.A in the past 4 years (2017-2020).
Data compiled by the IMEDD using the U.S official GDP data: https://fr.countryeconomy.com/gouvernement/pib/etats-unis
Finally, this booming economy is shown by the rate of evolution between the 2017-2020 Presidential mandate and the 2013-2016 Presidential mandate, which is of 22% (based on the 4th quarter projection for 2020) which is a very good evolution considering that the whole year 2020 was “handicaped”, economically speaking, by the covid19’s crisis. It lets even think that if the covid19’s crisis had not happened, the evolution would have reached much more than 22% for the U.S GDP.
Data compiled by the IMEDD using the U.S official GDP data: https://fr.countryeconomy.com/gouvernement/pib/etats-unis
Despite a terrible health crisis which forced the United States to go in lockdown, to slow their economy and face difficulties, it is clearly shown that the year 2020 will be far away from dramatic for the American economy. It also shows that if this crisis had not happened, the American economy would have boomed as never in the U.S in the year 2020. Though, the crisis happened, and the numbers show that the U.S resisted very well, because indeed, the 2020 level of GDP/capita, despite the crisis will reach the level at least reached between 2018 and 2019, meaning that the Americans have not lost too much in terms of GDP/capita during the covid19’s crisis.
Moreover, for the 2017-2020 Presidential mandate, which includes the covid19’s crisis and its effects on the American economy, it is clear that the U.S had a booming situation with their GDP and if the U.S had not been struck by the pandemic, the GDP results would be far beyond hopes.
Based all these data provided above, the analysis of the key figures of the past 3 Presidential mandates and the projection of GDP for 2020 (on which the 3 first quarters are already known), the Presidential mandate 2017-2020 has created a booming situation for the economy of the U.S.A, which is also shown above through the key figures of GDP per capita. In other words, the GDP of the 3 first three years of the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 have created an important and solid economy, which has helped/absorbed the issue of the covid19’s crisis in 2020, and still, it is clear too, than the U.S economy has resisted very well to the impact of the 2020’s pandemic, as the global GDP’s growth on the whole Presidential mandate 2017-2020 will be around 22% (when the 4th quarter of 2020’s GDP will be finally published).
In conclusion, the American economy has been prosperous during the Presidential mandate 2017-2020 and would have been tremendous, unprecedented unseen, if the covid19’s crisis had not happened.
Point 2: Economy: the U.S imports of goods (2009-2019)
The table below shows the U.S imports of goods between 2009 and 2019.
The imports are a very important data, as they show the level of goods bought by the United States out of the country, so abroad, which means behind, money sent abroad and change rates for the money… In other words, the more the imports are high in proportion of the GDP, the more the money is sent abroad.
The table clearly shows that during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, the level of imports in the U.S decreases to almost reach the level of 2009 and the nineties, which means that since 2015, the United States has implemented policies to decrease their imports (in percent of the U.S GDP), especially in the past 4 years.
The decrease is particularly visible between 2018 and 2019, a moment in which the United States has put America First, which means relocating some parts of the economy in the U.S.A for local production, instead of buying abroad. This decrease is also due to the trade deals signed by the U.S in the past 4 years which consisted in renegociating the trade contracts with foreign countries, following the goal of bringing back to the U.S some parts of the economy. The table shows that the U.S has reduced its dependency on imports, which also allowed to be less dependent on change rates.
Source of the data: https://fr.countryeconomy.com/commerce/importations/etats-unis
The U.S is in a situation of reducing its dependency on the purchase of goods abroad and by the way, limits the sending of money abroad and the consequences for the change rates.
Point 3: Economy: the U.S exports (2009-2019)
The table below shows the level of exports of goods between 2009 and 2019. In other words, it presents the goods produced in the U.S and sold to foreign countries. This indicator shows the U.S foreign trade.
The table clearly shows that between 2010 and 2015, the United States exported more than after 2015 considering the percentage of exports in the U.S GDP.
Though, in 2018 and 2019, the U.S exports have never been so high (in amount), which shows that the U.S improved their foreign policies to sell their goods abroad, which means bringing back to the U.S money from abroad.
Since 2018, the exports are over 1 600 000 M.$ which indicates and confirms that America has been economically booming and convinced other countries to buy more “American”.
Source of the data: https://fr.countryeconomy.com/commerce/exportations/etats-unis
The U.S results for the exports since 2018 clearly show a sign of economic booming, with a production of goods in the U.S and some increasing sales abroad.
Point 4: Economy: the U.S trade balance (2009-2019)
The Trade Balance is calculated by the difference between the exports and the imports.
This table below clearly shows the trade strategy of the United States:
- first, reducing the dependency of imported goods,
- second, increasing the sales of U.S produced goods abroad.
The table shows that between 2018 and 2019, the imports have decreased and the exports have increased.
It also shows that since 2009, a mechanism of “purchasing abroad” has been implemented in the U.S with each year a bigger deficit of the trade balance, which can only be resolved by “buying less abroad” and “selling more abroad”, which happened since 2017.
The data since 2017 show the results of the success of the policy “America First” with the third lowest trade balance rate in the U.S GDP in 2019 since 2009, which fully confirms that America is becoming less dependent on its imports and much more competitive on its exports, which underlines as well the booming of the American economy during the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate.
In order to better master its trade balance and continue its economic booming, the United States need to relocalize in the U.S the purchase of certain goods which can be produced in the U.S and keep on exporting more, as the country has done it in larger proportions since 2017, with the goal of reducing more and more the trade balance rate in the GDP, which would mean increasing the U.S exports more and more, while reducing the imports.
Point 5: Economy: the U.S corruption index (2009-2018)
Since 2015, the corruption index has been published by the NGO Transparency International as a reference to monitor the countries in terms of corruption in the public sector only. The world average rate of corruption is 43.
- The more we have a score close to 0, the more the country is corrupt.
- The more we have a score close to 100, the less the country is corrupt.
The table below shows that the United States is listed at the 23rd world rank regarding the corruption index, ex-aequo with France in 2019.
The U.S does not stand among the more transparent countries regarding the fight against corruption, though, the U.S is globally in a quite good position.
The table also shows that in 2019 in the United States, the index of corruption has decreased from its normal level which is normally around 75, to reach 69 in 2019, which means that the U.S was analyzed with more corruption in 2019 in the public affairs.
The table shows that in 2019, there was a bigger lack of transparency in the U.S in the management of the public affairs, in all kinds of public organizations, the states, the cities, etc…
The data for the year 2020 are not provided yet but considering the 2020 U.S election and the many investigations conducted by the Republican and independent Lawyers for suspicion of fraudulent process of election in certain states and the facts reported by the alternative media, this could lead to a much worse corruption index in 2020.
Source of the data: NGO Transparency international: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indice_de_perception_de_la_corruption
Point 6: Social: the U.S expenses in education (2008-2020)
The table belows shows the U.S expenses in education between 2009 and 2014, which are in regular increase.
Source of the data: https://fr.countryeconomy.com/gouvernement/depenses/education/etats-unis
Since 2014, the following tables clearly show that each year, the budget dedicated to education in the U.S is in increase, except for the year 2018, which saw a very small decrease.
U.S Data for Education in 2015: 1 023 500 M.$
U.S Data for Education in 2016: 1 050 400 M.$
Since the year 2017, the U.S budget of education has increased in a significative way.
U.S Data for Education in 2017: 1 121 700 M.$
U.S Data for Education in 2018: 1 110 400 M.$
Since the year 2019, the U.S budget of education has increased in a significative way, and the year 2020 is by far, the best year in terms of budget given to the U.S Education system, which is related to new needs, due to the pandemic, and the school online.
U.S Data for Education in 2019: 1 187 400 M.$
U.S Data for Education in 2020: 1 187 400 M.$
The United States has paid great attention on education during the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate, especially in 2019 and 2020, the year in which new financial needs were needed mostly to mantain a good level of education due to the pandemic in 2020.
Point 7: Social: the U.S average wage (2009-2019)
The following table shows the U.S average wage between 2008 and 2019.
During the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate, the medium wage has increased, passing from 53 376 dollars in 2017 to 57 055 dollars in 2019, so an increase of 6,89% between 2017 and 2019, which shows a great booming in terms of wage for the American workers.
Point 8: the U.S unemployment rate (2009-2019)
The table and graph below show that in 2019, the United States had the lowest unemployment rate ever recorded since 1990.
In 2009, the unemployment increased a lot, passing from 5,8% in 2008 to 9,3% in 2009 (probably due to the subprimes’s crisis).
Between 2009 and 2012, the level of unemployment varied from 9,3% (2009) to 8,1% (2012) which shows that no special policies had been undertaken during that period to bring a dynamism to the employment. Then from 2013 until 2016, the United States saw the start of a decrease of its rate of unemployment, but the real decrease was seen during the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate with an extraordinary low rate of unemployment of 3,7% in 2019.
This decrease is related to the increase of the U.S GDP, to the decrease of imports (America First) and the increase of exports (the U.S goods sold abroad). All this underlines how the labor market was in situation of boom from 2017 to 2019.
In 2020, the first quarter (from January to March 2020) was fine with a very low rate of unemployment which confirmed that the U.S had a very good health in terms of economy and employment (look at the yellow graph below).
Then in April 2020, the situation changed due to the covid19’s crisis and the lockdown which caused an economic crisis worldwide.
We then saw the rate of unemployment increase a lot until 16,2% of the population in April 2020, but we also saw that straight away some measures were taken to help the Americans find a job, and by the summer 2020, the U.S was back to a rate of unemployment of 10,6% (which was indeed the level of unemployment during the Presidential Mandate 2009-2013, which had not suffered from a terrible crisis as the U.S did with the covid19 in 2020).
Then, in October 2020, the unemployment rate decreased again to reach 6,7% and in November 6,1%, which shows that the United States is back to its good trend, economically speaking and in terms of jobs, and that the measures taken by the U.S Government during the covid19’s crisis worked well.
Point 9: Social: the U.S public expenses in health (2009-2019)
Never in the American history, the U.S public expenses for health have been higher than since the year 2017.
The increase had indeed started in 2014 with the Obamacare, and the budgets for health have always been reinforced since that time.
The situation of covid19 in 2020 on the health budget:
Added to the ordinary yearly budget for health which has been in constant increase since the year 2014, the United States has injected in the health budget some incredible financements in 2020 to tackle the pandemic as shown below. 2,59 trillion dollars were added as new budgetary ressources for federal agencies to respond to the pandemic.
The graphic above shows that the U.S also injected 902 billion dollars to defer and reduce taxes to individual and businesses. This is not a direct budget for the health sector, but it can be included, as the aid is a direct consequence of the pandemic and its goal was to help the Americans pass this period of crisis in the best possible way.
Finally, the graph above shows that the United States have funded up to 3,92 trillion dollars in credit, loans, guarantee programs to sustain the Americans and the businesses during the period of crisis due to covid19.
The year 2020 is therefore an unprecedented year in terms of health budget for the U.S which contributed to the effort to combat covid19.
The point 14 of this global analysis called “Social: the U.S key figures of covid19 vs some European countries + Russia (2020)” shows that the U.S had a good strategy to fight against the coronavirus, with many tests, and finally, not a huge death rate compared to other countries (see below: point 14).
Point 10: the U.S rate of violent crimes (2008-2019)
In the table below are reported the violent crimes in the United States per 100 000 persons.
The data show different periods:
- Since 2017: the violent crimes are in decrease
- In 2016, there was a peak in the violent crimes as well as in 2012
- Between 2008 and 2011, the crimes were in a much higher proportion.
In 2019 the number of violent crimes per 100 000 persons was low 366.7/100 000 persons, in the same proportion than the year 2014.
So, globally speaking, the numbers show that during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, the violent crime rate has been lower than in the past.
On the graph below, we clearly see that the last years (since 2017) had a lower rate of violent crimes, than the years before. Though, we also see that the United States have worked a lot to decrease the violent crimes since the nineties when we had nearly the double of crimes than now. The data for the year 2020 concerning the violent crimes are not yet available.
Point 11: Social: the U.S number and rate of immigrants (2009-2019)
Since 2015, the legal immigrants remain stable around 15% of the U.S population. All the detailed information for the U.S immigration is available on the website of the Homeland Security: https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/
The graph below describes the countries of origin of legal immigration in the United States. The major part is from Mexico (in a very large proportion), followed by China, India and the Philippines.
Point 12: Social: the U.S rate of emigrants (2009-2019)
Less than 1% of the U.S citizens emigrate to foreign countries each two years. The period 2018-2019 saw a little increase of emigration but it’s not significant.
When the U.S Citizens emigrate, they principally go to neighboring countries (Mexico and Canada). Then, they go to Europe (the United Kingdom, Germany and France). They also go to Australia, and a smaller number go to Israel and South Korea.
Point 13: Social: the U.S poverty risk rate (2009-2018)
The table below shows that there was a period in which the risk of poverty rate was quite high (above 14%), between 2009 and 2014.
Then, in 2015, the risk of poverty started to decrease a bit to reach 13,5%.
Since 2017, the risk of poverty rate in the U.S has gone back to the level between 1998 and in 2018, the risk of poverty rate (11,8%) is even the lowest ever had in the United States since 2001.
It means that during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, less Americans were under a risk of poverty than in the precedent Presidential mandates before 2016.
For the year 2020, the risk of poverty rate has not been published yet, but considering the pandemic, an increase of the poverty risk rate could be expected, but maybe not that much, considering that extraordinary measures of financial support have been provided by the U.S Government to the Americans to help them pass the covid19’s crisis. The good economic health and labor market (as shown above) are also helping the United States to limit the effect of the covid19’s crisis on poverty.
Point 14: Social: the U.S key figures of covid19 vs some European countries + Russia (2020)
The table below shows the situation of the United States concerning the covid19’s crisis since the beginning of the pandemic until the 4th of December 2020, date of the writing of this article. The U.S data are compared to France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany and Russia in order to see if the United States do better or worse than the others countries in terms of health management.
It is true to say that the United States has the highest number of covid19’s cases in the world with 14 774 635 million people who were infected by the disease on the studied period.
Though, this number alone doesn’t mean anything…
The numbers need to be analyzed in comparison of the U.S total population who is far bigger than the other countries studied (331 838 624 U.S citizens). Therefore, the accurate data to analyse for the United States is the rate of penetration of the disease in the global population, which is 4,45%.
This key figure shows that the Americans get more infected than the other countries studied. It means that more people are identified as covid19’s cases.
Considering the number of tests done in the U.S from the beginning of the pandemic until the 4th of December 2020 (203 888 051 tests conducted in the U.S, the highest world number, which shows a certain degree of safety in identifying the cases), it is not surprising to find a penetration rate of covid19’s cases in the U.S higher than the other countries. It is only due to the fact that the American population is more tested than the other countries listed above.
Number of tests conducted on the Americans to detect covid19:
The data are very clear. The United States is the country that tests the most its citizens, which means the U.S is the nation the most able to identify the cases.
If we compare the number of tests made in the U.S to the entire population, it represents a rate of 61%.
Only the United Kingdom is ahead of the U.S.A with a rate of 66% (comparing the number of tests to the UK’s population).
The table clearly shows too that France, Italy and Germany have not conducted as many tests as the U.S or the UK, with the following respective numbers: France (32%), Italy (38%), Germany (35%). The table also shows that Spain (49%) and Russia (54%) have conducted more tests than France, Italy and Germany, though Spain and Russia remain behind the U.S in terms of covid19’s tests, which shows that the United States has given many chances to the Americans to know whether or not they were infected by the coronavirus.
Deaths due to covid19 compared to the entire U.S population:
The U.S death rate among the entire American population since the beginning of the pandemic reaches 0,09%, which means that on 10 000 Americans detected with covid19, 9 persons have died, which is less than Italy and Spain (both have a rate of 10 deaths for 10000 persons) and at the same level than the United Kingdom (9 per 10 000 persons) when we study the death rate of these three countries compared to their populations. Only Germany and Russia are far ahead with respective deaths rates of 0,02% and 0,03% compared to their own population (which could refer maybe to a better health system than the other countries). France is a little bit ahead than the U.S (0,08% for France vs 0,09% for the U.S).
The countries listed above are the most affected countries by covid19, and it is clearly shown that though the number of identified cases is higher in the U.S (in number), it doesn’t have a higher death impact in proportion than in the other countries (and even, the U.S impact for covid19 is lower than Italy or Spain). It means that the healthcare system in the U.S works well and has an equal response in terms of impact as the other countries (just Germany and Russia might do better).
It is true to say though, that in numbers (not rate), the United States has 285 574 deaths since the beginning of the pandemic until December 4, 2020. Although it is a huge number, it can’t be analysed on it’s own, and has to be compared to the entire population. As the U.S population is much bigger than the other countries, unfortunately, it has impact on the number of deaths, though, once again, the U.S.A are not doing worse than the other countries studied. The U.S are in the same average as its allies.
Deaths due to covid19 compared to the total number of cases since the beginning of the pandemic until December 4, 2020:
Now, if we analyse the U.S death rate for covid19 compared to the total number of cases, the table above shows that the rate of deaths reaches 1,93%, and then becomes the third “lowest rate” of the countries studied above, which puts Germany and Russia ahead of the U.S. The table clearly shows too, that the U.S has a lower death rate among the cases of covid19 than France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom (which has the highest rate of the studied countries).
This result of 1,93% of deaths among all infected people (total cases) of coronavirus shows that the United States, with their healthcare system, brought a better response in treating the disease than France (2,41%), Italy (3,48%), Spain (2,72%) and the United Kingdom (3,59%).
Conclusion of the analysis of the U.S key figures for covid19:
The data are very clear. The U.S.A tests much more its population than the other countries. The big number of covid19’s cases in the U.S is only due to its big population (331 838 624 million people). It is not due at all to a bad management but to the size of the population, which also naturally correlates a big number of deaths (285 574 people), but the U.S deaths do not represent a higher proportion than in the other countries compared to the entire American population (0,09%), nor if we study the death penetration on the total cases (1,93%), which is even lower than most of the European countries studied, except Germany and Russia.
- Saying that the covid19 kills a big number of American people is true, but it’s only due to the huge size of the U.S population.
- Saying that America does worst than the other countries is false. America is in the average of most of the European Countries.
The accurate information is that the United States finally do a little bit better than the other countries, considering the death penetration among the infected cases (1,93%) and it can be certainly related to the quality of the healthcare measures implemented during the pandemic.
Another fact which needs to be added to the U.S action for covid19 is that the United States has also helped Italy in the management of its covid19’s crisis with the U.S Army forces sent in Milan, with U.S equipments given to Italy, which means that the U.S.A has contributed to tackle the pandemic too in Italy (foreign aid). Of course, this fact is not incremented in the U.S key figures for covid19, but the reality is that America has contributed to save many lives in Italy thanks to its support.
Point 15: Security: the U.S public expenses in defense (2011-2020)
Defense: the years 2011-2014:
The tables below show that between 2011 and 2014, there was a strong decrease in the American budget for defense during the period of the Syrian War and the Afghanistan War, meaning that although the United States were at war, with some operational needs, the military budget was decreasing, meaning that the U.S forces were maybe not given enough financial support to do their duty in Syria and Afghanistan in time of war.
- The Syrian war started in 2011 with some operations led with the coalition until 2016.
- The Afghanistan war lasted from 2001 to 2014.
Budget of Defense 2011
Budget of Defense 2012
Budget of Defense 2013
Budget of Defense 2014
Defense: the years 2015-2016:
At the end of 2014, the NATO stopped the war in Afghanistan.
The tables below show that the budget 2015 for military defense continues to decrease while the budget for the Veterans, Foreign Military Aid and Foreign Economic Aid increases.
Budget of Defense 2015
Budget of Defense 2016
In 2016, both budgets Foreign Military Aid and Foreign Economic Aid decreased, the military budget increased a little bit, so did the budget for the veterans.
Defense: the years 2017-2020:
During the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, the United States has a constant increase of its budget of defense and no war. The increase is especially due to the Military Defense and the Veterans. The budgets allocated since 2017 to the military/veterans show the will of the U.S to restore their Army, which had been constantly in budget decrease before 2017.
Budget of Defense 2017
Budget of Defense 2018
In 2018, the budget for military defense increased again, so for the veterans and the foreign economic aid.
Budget of Defense 2019
In 2019, there was a big evolution (increase) of the budget for the military defense, as well as for the veterans and the foreign economic aid.
Budget of Defense 2020
In 2020, once again, the budget for defense in increase mostly the military defense, the veterans (support to the health crisis) and the foreign military and economic aid (example, the support provided by the U.S to Italy).
The year 2020 sees the biggest budget ever allocated to the American Army forces, to the Veterans, to the foreign military aid (as said in the part for the Covid19’s crisis. The U.S.A helped Italy thanks to the support of the U.S Army based in Italy) and the Foreign military and economic Aids.
Conclusion for the budget of defense:
The most interesting fact of the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 is that the United States was not involved in any war, even if some military operations were conducted in foreign countries, for peace keeping or terrorism operations.
The American budget of defense has been restored during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 as a level which has never been seen in time of peace and even in time of recent war. This fact shows that the military + veterans are now focused on other missions too, such as the covid19’s first response in 2020, humanitarian missions, intelligence operations, etc…
Point 16: State: the U.S total public expenses (2009-2018)
The following table shows that between 2009 and 2015, the U.S public expenses have been quite stable aroung 6.000.000 M.$.
In 2016, the public expenses started to increase, with a bigger increase between 2017 and 2018, which is related to the increase of budget for education, health and defense. It means that under the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate, more attention was focused on social and security issues while still reducing the proportion of the public expenses in the U.S GDP. It means that as the growth had been booming since 2017, it was then possible to invest more budget on education, health and defense while having no impact on the repartition of the expenses on the U.S GDP, as the expenses were absorbed by the growth.
We also see in this table below that :
- during the years 2009-2015, the public expenses per habitant remained around 19 000$ on the whole period.
- Since 2016, and each year since 2017, the public expenses per habitant have increased to reach 22 092 $ / capita in 2019, which explains the global public investments for a better education, a better healthcare system management and a better defense, as shown in the Point 6 (education), Points 9 and 14 (health + covid19) and Point 15 (defense) of this analysis.
In other words, during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, the Americans were given a better quality of public services.
Point 17: State: the U.S public debt (2009-2019) vs France and the United Kingdom
U.S Debt 2009-2019
The table below shows that the debt of the United States has a long history of increase, which indeed started in 2009 until the highest rate in 2016, with a increase of 59,59% on the period 2009-2016. This increase was due to the subprimes’s crisis, the recession, the wars in Syria and Afghanistan.
Though, during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, even if the American debt has increased in number, as the United States were living in the same time an economic boom, the increase of the debt was absorbed, and we even see that from 2017, the American debt decreased in proportion of the U.S GDP.
The United States is not the only country in this situation…
Many other countries have the same situation, as shown below for France and the United Kingdom, meaning that the situation of the U.S debt is not worse than the other countries, and it also shows that the more the economy is in boom, the more the debt is absorbed. The points explained above in this article show very well that America spent the last 4 years in an economic boom which indeed allowed to absorbe the debt better while still largely investing on education, health and defense.
Comparaison: debt of France 1996-2016
On the graph below is the situation of France, on which we see that globally there was a gap in the debt too in 2009, which is also related to the international crisis of 2008 with the subprimes, the recession and the participation of France to the coalition in Syria and Afghanistan, which shows that having a bad public expenses management and being at war are very bad situations for the debt of France.
Comparaison: debt of France 2018-2021
Here is below the situation of France between 2018 and projected 2021, which includes the moment for the years 2020 and 2021 of the covid19’s pandemic. We clearly see that France was obliged to increase its debt too to finance the crisis, as all the other countries did (like the U.S.A too). But the point 18: “State: the contribution to the U.S public debt by Presidential mandate” (shown below) demonstrates that considering the situation of the U.S before the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 for education, health and defense and considering the pandemic, the debt of the U.S was quite well managed (lower than France in proportion of each respective GDP).
Comparaison: debt of the United Kingdom 2006-2020
On this graph below, which concerns the United Kingdom, we clearly see too that the crisis of 2008 and the subsequent recession is the moment in which the UK debt increased a lot. The UK trend for the national debt follows exactly the same trend as the American or French debts, which shows that many countries were struck by the 2008 crisis. Then arrived the 2020 health crisis with covid19 which increases the debt as well (the goal being first to respond to the needs of the crisis, second, to maintain a good level of public services for the people).
Conclusion for the U.S debt
The U.S public national debt follows indeed the rhythm of the international crisis with some moments of time in which the U.S.A (and the other countries) need to live more at credit, as shown this year in 2020 with the pandemic which needed colossal investments in health and education.
Though, when the economy goes well, as it was the case during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, the debt can be absorbed quite easily and even reduced in proportion of the GDP. What is important is that in the upcoming years, the United States keep booming their economy, increasing their exports, limiting their imports, supporting the economic development and it will help the country master and absorbe its debt.
Point 18: State: the contribution to the U.S public debt by Presidential mandate (the biggest increase)
The table below presents a summary of the American Public debt by Presidential mandate (the biggest increases of the U.S debt). In other words, the goal is to know whose President of the United States contributed the most to the U.S public debt.
Indeed, the table must be related to the major crisis which are at the origins of the increase of the debt.
Obviously, Franklin D. Roosevelt is the President who had the biggest percentage increase in terms of debt as he was in charge during the World War II, a period that needed a lot of money to finance the war effort against nazism, then the reconstruction of Europe.
If we focus on the most recent Presidential Mandates (2008-2016), we see that during the subprimes’s crisis, the recessuib the wars in Syria and Afghanistan, President Obama increased the American Debt of 74% adding 8,59 trillions dollars to the national debt.
During the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, President Trump contributed to increase by 33% the National Debt for a total amount on 4 years of 6,7 trillions dollars, on which 3,5 trillions were dedicated to the fight against the pandemic of covid19 in the U.S but also to bring foreign health aid, which means that if the pandemic had not occured, the increase of debt for President Trump would be only 3,2 trillions dollars. The 2017-2020 debt also corresponds to the financing of a better education, health and defense, which are considered as necessary investments for future.
It is also very important to understand why the debt needed to increase during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020. As shown in the precedent points above, from 2008 and even before to 2016, the United States had made very few investments on education, health, defense, etc… which means that the United States were late in their development. To go back to a normal level of public service, it was therefore needed to massively invest on the social and defense issues, which has been done between 2017 and 2020 as shown in global analyisis of the United States. In other words, it means that if more efforts had been done before 2016, the U.S.A wouldn’t have had to catch up in the past four years.
Therefore, the debt of the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 must be perceived as a remedial for each little investment in social and defense which had not been done before.
Point 19: State: the U.S maximum tax rate on job workers (2009-2019)
In this table, four periods are visible:
- 2018-2019: a maximum tax rate for the Americans around 46%, which needs to be related to the public expenses in education, health and defense in increase and also to the economic growth of the country. Both success gave the opportunity to low the tax rate as the U.S lived during these two years a boom.
- 2017: year of transition of administratiob for the tax rate. A maximum tax rate for the Americans around 48%.
- 2013-2016: a maximum tax rate for the Americans around 48%, which needs to be related to the increase of public expenses of the health system with the ObamaCare.
- 2008-2012: maximum tax ratefor the Americans around 43%, which needs to be related to the public expenses in education, health and defense on the same period, which were quite low. It means that the Americans were quite taxed and didn’t have on regards of their payments an equivalent investment in education, health and defense.
Below, this table shows the repartition of tax rates regarding the level of household.
Considering in the point 7 of this analysis called: “Social: the U.S average wage (2009-2019)”, that the average wage is equivalent to 57 055 dollars in 2019, many Americans are taxed at 22% and below, which is a much lower tax rate that most of the other countries on earth.
Point 20: Environment: the U.S CO2 emissions from energy consumption (2009-2019)
The table below shows that the U.S has been decreasing its CO2 emissions since the year 2008, except in 2018. Though, the year 2019 is the lowest year in terms of CO2 emissions since the nineties.
This table also shows that the combat to decrease the CO2 emissions keeps being a constant of the U.S Government, no matter what policies are made, which underlines, that the 2017-2020 Presidential Mandate also contributed to reduce the CO2 emissions.
The data for the year 2020 are not yet provided, but it is possible to project that the level of CO2 emissions in 2020 will decrease, considering the pandemic, the lockdowns, the decrease of air transport, the decrease of the use of cars during the lockdown with less production/demand in oil, as shown in the point 21 below called: “Energy: the U.S production of oil (2009-2019)”.
The graphic below shows that since 2007, the U.S.A has entered in a phase of decrease of its CO2 emissions.
The United States saw the largest decline in energy-related CO2 emissions in 2019 on a country basis – a fall of 140 Mt, or 2.9%, to 4.8 Gt. U.S emissions are now down almost 1 Gt from their peak in the year 2000, the largest absolute decline by any country over that period.
A 15% reduction in the use of coal for power generation underpinned the decline in overall US emissions in 2019. Coal-fired power plants faced even stronger competition from natural gas-fired generation, with benchmark gas prices an average of 45% lower than 2018 levels. As a result, gas increased its share in electricity generation to a record high of 37%. Overall electricity demand declined because demand for air-conditioning and heating was lower as a result of milder summer and winter weather.
Point 21: Energy: the U.S production of oil (2009-2019)
The table below shows the production of oil in the U.S per year since 2009.
In 2018, the oil production had doubled compared to the year 2009. It was a constant increase of capacity of production of oil on the past 10 years.
Between 2018 and 2019, there was also an increase of oil production of nearly 12%, which the biggest increase ever noted in the past ten years.
This data in oil production can be related to the increase of the U.S GDP, the growth, the increase of jobs, the low unemployment rate as the oil sector is known to drive the economy.
The table belows shows the year 2020 from January to August.
The 1st quarter of 2020 clearly followed the 2019 trend in oil production and it lasted until April 2020. Then, in May, June, July and August, the United States adjusted their oil production to the situation of the pandemic (less demand in oil due to the covid19’s crisis and a certain slowdown of transports in the U.S).
Point 22: Energy: the U.S production and consumption of energy GWh (Giga Watt per Hour) (2009-2019)
The U.S production and consumption of electricity have gloabally been stable between 2009 and 2019.
Though, in 2019, the overall electricity demand declined because demand for air-conditioning and heating was lower as a result of milder summer and winter weather as shown in point 21: “Environment: the U.S CO2 emissions from energy consumption (2009-2019)” and confirmed by the data on electricity shown in the table below: the U.S electricity consumption in 2019 was 3 930 635 GWh or 12 007 KWh/capita).
Point 23: Key points about the environment in the U.S
In 2020, the U.S has done a lot for the environment and showed that the country is acting in the international framework to preserve America and the world. All the initiatives listed below are the official information published by the White House.
- America recycles Day 2020
- Action to Modernize America’s Water Resource Management and Infrastructure.
- One Trillion Trees Executive Order, Promoting Conservation and Regeneration of Our Nation’s Forests
- Great Environmental Progress
- National Energy Awareness Month, 2020
- Determination on the Withdrawal of Certain Areas of the United States Outer Continental Shelf from Leasing Disposition
- Revision to United States Marine Scientific Research Policy
- Advancing Clean, Reliable, and Affordable Hydropower
- Unleashing American Producers and Restored Our Energy Dominance
- Accelerate America’s Infrastructure Development
- Ocean Exploration
- Earth Day and Arbor Day
- National Environmental Policy Act Regulations
- Modernizing Environmental Policies and Paving the Way for Vital Infrastructure Improvements
- 50th Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act
Only the 2020 initiatives for the environment are presented above. Many other initiatives have been undertaken too between 2017 and 2019 but it would have been too long to detail in the framework of this analysis. Though, the initiatives undertaken by the U.S.A since 2017 can be viewed on the White House’s Website: https://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/energy-environment/.
Obviously, during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020, the U.S Environmental Agencies have worked. To know more about the achievements of U.S Environmental organizations and their commitments on the period 2017-2020, here are their websites:
The question of the withdrawal of the U.S.A of the Paris Accords on Climate Change
When the United States announced its withdrawal of the Paris Accords on Climate Change in the early 2017, it was perceived as a shock by the World Community of Environment. However, three years later, we clearly see through the environmental data, that the United States has continued to act for a better environmental preservation, by reducing its CO2 emissions, by implementing important initiatives (such as tree planting and securing the water system), especially in the field of energy, by investing on tree planting, by better studying the oceans, by encouraging the recycling of waste therefore the circular economy.
All these points listed above are part of the American tools to Fight against Climate Change and better preserve the planet.
Some think that the U.S withdrawal of the Paris Accords on Climate Change was a catastrophe for the world. It is not true, because America is a big country, fully aware of its own sovereignty and able to act by itself for the environment.
It is also when we act first on its national land that we can act after for the internationa.
It has to be said as well, that the Paris Accords on Climate Change is a framework of commitments, some guidelines, but none of them are shown in commitments with metric data’s obligations. The Paris Accords on Climate Change is a voluntary basis of commitments, which means that each country can go at its own rhythm.
The Paris Accords on Climate Change just has the global ambition of doing better for the planet.
In other words, the U.S withdrawal of the Paris Accords on Climate Change in 2017 will never be a drama, nor for the United States, nor for the Earth. The important is that during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020:
- all the governmental organizations in America kept doing their jobs of environmentalists and preserve the country.
- several Presidential executive orders were passed between 2017 and 2020 to better preserve certain environmental issues in the U.S.
- some renewable energies were implemented (solar and hydraulic).
- some actions were undertaken to restore and preserve the sources of water.
- some initiatives were undertaken for the infrastructures and develop transports.
- some efforts were made to reduce the CO2 emissions.
- some efforts were made in tree planting.
- some international partnerships were done by the U.S with foreign countries (example: research on the oceans with Monaco, financing of the IAEA for the environmental research for the oceans, international conferences on the impact of pollution in the oceans on human health, international conference at the Grimaldi Forum Monaco on the smart cities…).
- the U.S participated as well in all the International Days (energy, waste, water, transports, earth, women…).
American Strategy for the Environment:
= Acting first to better preserve America, then help the rest of the world.
The strategy of the U.S is to preserve its environment by acting FIRST on its own country, to build strong and lasting commitments. In all cases, America is in the race for a better environmental preservation and in the framework of sustainable development.
America is far from being the worst country of the earth regarding the environment.
Finally, to conclude on the environment, the choice of the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 has been to implement the environment in the economy, which is wordly considered as the best manner to act. What needs to be done is a transition and the U.S are fully in this transition.
Conclusion on the United States on the Presidential Mandate 2017 and 2020
If we analyse the facts of the 4 past years, on the key figures (economy, social, environment and defense), the country of Lady Liberty, the U.S.A, has never been so fine.
In the past 4 years, the world has heard so much speaking of the United States and its good performance.
- The economy has never been in such a boom,
- Never in the American history, the unemployment rate has been so low,
- The expenses in education, healthcare and defense have been the highest since years,
- Many significant steps have been done in the field of the environment,
- The security of the nation has been restored with no war,
- America has given a lot to the world, for the pandemic and the process of peace-keeping.
In other words, the United States has been managed in a total vision of positive entrepreneurship for the country during the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020.
Never the United States has known such a global boom on a Presidential Mandate than the one between 2017 and 2020.
The quality of a Presidential Mandate must be valued on the criteria of sustainable development, as it has been done in this article which used 22 different criteria of analysis.
Of course, many more criteria could have been used, but the IMEDD is not charged nor mandated to study each little data of America.
However, these 22 criteria are the most important to assess a country.
The assessment has been done comparing the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 to the previous two mandates (2009-2016) and the results speak by themselves.
The facts of implemented in the nation the idea of “America First” has rebuilt the United States:
- stronger on the economy,
- safer for its social issues (education and healthcare),
- more committed to the environmental preservation,
- more committed to peace-keeping for the nation and the world.
The American results of the Presidential Mandate 2017-2020 speak by themselves. They are good.
The country of Lady Liberty, the U.S.A, has never been so fine since 2017.
There is a sentence which describes very well the spirit of the United States.
This sentence is written on the Memorial of the American Cemetery of Colleville sur Mer in Normandy, the beaches of DDAY 1944.
“This embattled shore, portal of freedom, is forever hallowed by the ideals, the valor and the sacrifices of our fellow countrymen”.
America is an eagle when she flies!